Deep Green: Gulf of Mexico, The Cost of Complexity

Blogpost by Laura K. - July 21, 2010 at 18:51 PM Add comment
Deep Green is Rex Weyler's monthly column, reflecting on the roots of activism, environmentalism, and Greenpeace's past, present, and future. The opinions here are his own.

July 2010 -

We're all in Deepwater Now.

Corporations don't need regulation, because protecting the environment is in their interest. The free market will protect nature.

That theory disintegrated at 21:49, April 20, 2010, under a waxing quarter moon, on a dark spring night in the Gulf of Mexico.

We've witnessed the collapse of corporate credibility before - at Bhopal in 1984, at Chernobyl in 1986, at the Marcopper Copper Mine in the Philippines in 1996, in Seveso Italy, at Love Canal, and in Minimata Japan for four murderous decades, as Chisso Corporation poisoned a fishing village with mercury.

These disasters cannot be written off as human error. They are the natural consequence of our society's practice of treating nature as a free resource for profiteering. Global corporations have demonstrated no ability to regulate themselves. Morality is too expensive. It is cheaper to cut corners on a hundred oil wells and pay the fines on the one that blows out. It is cheaper to dump mercury, cyanide or dioxins into rivers and bays, and wait to see if the poor inhabitants have the muscle to make the company pay. It's cheaper to obliterate nature, finance your own 'citizen group' to sign off on your treachery, and pay squadrons of lawyers to avoid liability.

Human industry now sinks its claws into every corner of the Earth, exploiting the last pockets of resources. The juggernaut took the easy stuff first because it was cheap. Now we go higher into the mountains for lithium and copper, deeper into the forest for ancient trees, and deeper into the earth's crust for oil and gas. Damn the cost. Rich consumers will pay, and the pelicans have no lawyers.

The Deepwater blowout that now stacks up among the greatest ecological holocausts of all time was not just an accident. It stands as the latest symptom of industrial civilisation's hubris.

                                                                                Solutions aren't the answer

 Any robust species will naturally expand, if it can, to occupy its habitat. However, in nature 'success' has a cost. A flourishing species must find new energy and nutrient resources, and must negotiate with its environment to process its wastes. Ecologist and historian Kenneth Boulding called this the 'metabolic cost' of evolutionary success.

Likewise, as human societies dominated their habitats, they sought solutions to the problems of paying this metabolic cost. Societies often fail to see that those problems were the results of previous solutions. Irrigation allowed ancient city states to solve the problems of population growth and scarce rainfall, but extensive irrigation produced salty, depleted soils.

To win new lands for food production, empires abandoned their cities and moved to new watersheds. Eventually, they clashed with other migrating communities, so they designed weapons and built armies to 'solve' conflict. The subsequent arms race created new problems. They solved this with bigger armies, but big armies need more food. New problem.

 Innovative technologies helped solve these problems but technologies, like armies, must be fed resources. Ships consumed forests. Machines demanded iron and oil. Computers require copper, plastic, silica and lithium. Where does it all stop?

Anthropologist Joseph Tainter studied societies to find out where the problem-solution-problem cycle stops. Most complex civilisations and empires simply collapsed under the weight of their metabolic costs. Their solutions became bigger problems until they consumed all available resources, depleted their habitat, and collapsed. Persia, Rome, Maya and Easter Islanders travelled this route to failure.

In The Collapse of Complex Societies, Tainter describes how civilisations trapped themselves in increasing complexity until they experienced diminishing returns on their solution investments. At that point, new complex solutions no longer paid for themselves. To feed the bigger army meant expanding the empire, but a bigger empire has more borders to defend and more over-taxed, irate citizens to pacify.

To finance the rising cost of growth, an empire must discover new energy subsidies. Ancient Rome increased its energy consumption by annexing distant forests, taxing landed peasants, and capturing slaves. However, the hunt for more energy costs energy. "Imperialism," Boulding explained, "makes the empire poor."

Finally, a growing civilisation experiences negative returns on its investments. The modern disasters in Bhopal or the Gulf of Mexico provide examples of negative returns. As our industrial system seeks out more energy, we find ourselves digging up the Canadian tundra, destroying wild watersheds, draining lakes, and boring deeper into the Earth's crust below the ocean.

We may notice that the greatest driver of environmental destruction is the growth process itself. Tainter points out that the only known examples of avoiding collapse - in both nature and in human history - involve simplifying, not growing. Eventually, we have to stop building false 'solutions' that create new problems and negotiate a lasting peace with nature.

The high cost of high tech

We may believe that a new technology will solve the problems of growth, until we account for the full ecological cost of that new technology. To build hybrid cars and computers, we seek out copper, lithium, zinc, aluminium, and rare earth metals, displace communities, and push deeper into Earth's remaining wilderness.

Timothy Gutowski and colleagues calculated that as computer chips shrunk in size and grew in power the material and energy intensity per unit mass increased a million-times. This is even before we factor in the cost of armies swarming over Afghanistan to secure the lithium for batteries.

We tend to think that since our computers require so little energy to operate, that they are 'efficient', but we're measuring the wrong thing. We need to measure the 'embodied' energy and material required to mine and ship resources and to build telecom infrastructure, server networks, software, research labs, and office towers. According to the International Energy Association report,'Gadgets and gigawatts', electricity consumption for computers, cell phones, iPhones, and other devices will triple by 2030, and this does not include the bulldozers digging up resources.

Remember when people claimed computers were going to save paper? This never happened. In 1950, at the dawn of the computer age, humanity used about 50 million tons of paper each year. We now use 250 million tons, five times the paper. Growth swamps efficiency. Computers stimulated growth and created more uses for packaging and paper. Meanwhile, during that period, the Earth lost over 600 million hectares of forest.

In 'The Monster Footprint of Digital Technology' Kris De Decker points out that utility stations operate at about 35 per cent efficiency, so the actual energy consumed is almost three-times the electricity consumed when a device is switched on. This is the metabolic cost of growth, the rising cost of complexity, paid long before you boot your computer or recharge your iPhone.

Where does this energy come from? It comes from damming rivers, loping off mountain tops for coal, and boring wells deep into the Earth's crust below the ocean.

In Deepwater now

Like our ancestors, modern human enterprise took the low hanging fruit and harvested the cheapest oil first. In the oil heyday, 50 years ago, oil flowed from shallow wells with 99 per cent net energy efficiency.

Today, we dig into oil sands, destroy vast tundra and grassland, melt bitumen in giant furnaces, fill lakes with black sludge, kill migrating waterbirds, displace caribou and human communities, trigger lung disease, mix bitumen with condensate refined thousands of kilometres away, ship the goop through long pipelines, endanger our coasts with oil tankers, and heat the planet like a flambé to deliver crude oil at 50 per cent net energy efficiency.

More costs, less benefit, represents the 'declining return' on our investments. Eventually those returns turn negative. In the Gulf of Mexico, British Petroleum lobbied politicians to cancel regulations, drilled a 6,000 metre well in 1500 metres of water, and cut corners to save money.

At 21:49 on April 20, 2010, gas from an improperly sealed well reached the BP drilling rig, ignited, blew up the rig, killed 11 people, devastated the Gulf's coastal economy, and launched an ecological holocaust on the scale of Bhopal, Chernobyl, and Minimata. The blowout has killed thousands of seabirds, turtles, fish, and marine animals. Some 50,000 to 150,000 barrels of oil per day pours into the Gulf of Mexico. On top of this, BP has added over 1-million gallons of toxic Corexit dispersant, banned in the UK, which contains the neurotoxin 2-Butoxyethanol, arsenic, cadmium, cyanide, and mercury.

The Gulf of Mexico tragedy is not unique. It is only the latest symptom of a civilisation out of control, stumbling blindly to pay the metabolic cost of reckless, unsustainable growth

The evacuation of Rongelap [maybe only love can help us today]

In 1985 the residents of Rongelap in the Marshall Islands asked Greenpeace to help them relocate to a new home. Their island had been contaminated by radioactive fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing in the Pacific.

Evacutaion of Rongelap Islanders to Mejato by crew Rainbow Warrior. Pacific 1985.

Since 1945 most of the world has lived in fear of nuclear war, but for many Pacific Islanders from 1948 to 1956, nuclear war was a reality. In the 8 years of atmospheric nuclear testing at Bikini Atoll, fall out from 66 fission and hydrogen bombs had rained down on their region.

On March 1, 1954, the United States exploded a hydrogen bomb, code named 'Bravo'. At 15 megatons 'Bravo' was a thousand times more powerful than "Little Boy" the bomb droppedon Hiroshima and after the explosion there was a marked increase in the level of background radiation measured around the globe.

The inhabitants of Bikini and Enewetak were evacuated from their island homes prior to the nuclear tests to avoid exposure to radioactive fallout. But the inhabitants of Rongelap 150 kilometres away, were not so fortunate.

Within four hours of the explosion, fallout from Bravo was settling on the island. A fine white ash landed on the heads and bare arms of people standing in the open. It dissolved into water supplies and drifted into houses.

Evacuation of Rongelap Islanders to Mejato by crew of the Rainbow Warrior. Rongelap was contaminated with radioactive fall out from American nuclear tests in the Pacific.

The snow-like debris fell all day and into the evening, covering the ground up to 2 centimetres thick. On the day after the blast, Americans wearing protective suits came to the island. They took readings with a Geiger counter from two wells and left after 20 minutes, without saying a word, according to the islanders.

Although U.S. authorities knew of the fallout pattern and the strong winds that had been blowing towards Rongelap on the day of the test, they made no attempt to evacuate the Islanders for more than 48 hours. Many Marshallese believe the Rongelap Islanders were used by the US as 'guinea pigs' to study the effects of radioactive fallout on humans. Scientists at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York State stated that "The habitation ofthese people on the island will afford most valuable ecological radiation data on human beings".

The Rongelapese exposed to the tests had all the symptoms of severe radiation sickness: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, itching and burning of the skin, eyes and mouth. They suffered from skin burns over much of their bodies, and lost much of their hair within two weeks of the Bravo explosion.

Thirty one years on, 95% of the population alive between 1948 and 1954 had contracted thyroid cancer and a high proportion of their children suffered from genetic defects.

The Rongelap people were returned to their island in 1957, in spite of the fact that it had been continually dosed with fallout from nuclear tests during their absence. No 'cleanup' of radiation was ever conducted and in 1979, an aerial radiation study of the northern Marshalls conducted by the US revealed high levels of residual radiation on Rongelap Atoll - in some places even higher than at Bikini itself.

But the US government representative to the Marshall Islands had ruled that Rongelap was still perfectly safe, as long as the people stay away from the northern islands and eat imported tinned food.

The Islanders' pleas to the US government to be evacuated had always fallen on deaf ears. So at the request of Rongelap's representative to the Marshall Islands parliament, Greenpeace agreed to take on the task of evacuating the entire population to the safer island of Mejato 180 kilometres away.

'Operation Exodus' was a major departure for Greenpeace, this was not a traditional Greenpeace style protest, there were no inflatables or banners to hang, there was just the logistic challenge of moving an entire population 180 kilometres in the Pacific.

When the Rainbow Warrior arrived at the seemingly idyllic tropical island on the 17th May, local women sailed out to greet the crew singing Marshallese songs. Other Rongelapesewaiting on the beach held up banners that read, "We love the future of our kids."

With all they had heard and read about Rongelap, it was an overwhelming experience for the crew of the Warrior: the realisation that these people who had been living here for thousands of years would probably never see their homes again. For the next few days the Greenpeace crew and the islanders worked together to dismantle the houses and ferry the materials to the Warrior.

The ten day evacuation required 3 trips between the islands and in all, 300 Islanders and over 100 tons of building materials were relocated. When it was time to leave, most of the crew were devastated. Their experience at Rongelap brought home to them the consequences of nuclear testing on these isolated South Pacific communities and stirred up powerful emotions.

now or never greenpeace? greenpeace. go green. environment. green. solar. un

     Forests - Threats
Eight thousand years ago, large tracts of ancient forest covered almost half the earth's land area. Today, only one fifth of the original forests remain intact, the rest having been destroyed, degraded or fragmented by relentless human activity

The primary causes of forest loss and degradation vary from region to region. They include agricultural expansion, mining , settlement, shifting agriculture, plantation establishment and infrastructural development.

However, recent research by the Washington based World Resources Institute (WRI) concludes that "commercial logging poses by far the greatest danger to frontier forests ... affecting more than 70 percent of the world's threatened frontiers."

There now exists considerable evidence to show that industrial logging is another key factor in opening up previously unlogged forest to many secondary effects, such as large-scale hunting, illegal trade in bushmeat - including meat from apes, fuel-wood gathering and clearing for agriculture.

While logging is one of the most important causes of forest loss and degradation, the way the logging industry operates also exacerbates the problem.

Unplanned tree cutting and inefficient processing leads to an enormous wastage of wood, while lack of transparency within the industry makes it very difficult to trace the exact source of wood supply.

This makes it impossible to determine how well the forest from which it came is managed, leaving the industry open to widespread irresponsible and illegal practices worldwide.

                                                                                           Greenpeace worldwide
                                                   put here by and

Background - January 7, 2010

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